Climate Policy Dashboard - Tracking progress to deliver net zero

 

Adaptation

CONTENTS

Progress Ranking and Key Recommendations | Sector Summary | CCC Recommendations | Further detail: progress in policy development and managing risk

Manufacturing progress ranking - Insufficient/On the Way

Progress ranking and key recommendations

Progress Ranking: Insufficient/On the Way (4/10)

Key actions on the road to world-leading policy

  • The UK will need to adapt to a range of climate impacts in the future. There will be climate impacts even if warming is kept to the Paris Agreement goal of 1.5°C, and with current policies far from sufficient to achieve this goal, the Climate Change Committee has recommended that the Government prepares for a potential temperature rise of up to 4°C.
  • The Government has currently failed to deliver “a minimum level of resilience to current and inevitable climate change” according to the Climate Change Committee.
  • The UK does not yet have a coherent vision for successful adaptation to climate change, nor measurable targets to assess progress. Policies are being developed without sufficient recognition of the need to adapt to the changing climate. This undermines adaptation goals, locks in climate risks, and stores up costs for the future. 
  • The Government’s National Adaptation Programme covering the five year period, 2018-2023 has not delivered the necessary improved resilience to the changing climate as was intended under the Climate Change Act
  • The Government should set a clear vision for a well-prepared and resilient UK in response to climate risk, and back this vision with measured targets to embed adaptation in policies across the natural environment, planning, infrastructure, homes, and transport. 
  • The forthcoming third National Adaptation Programme, which runs from 2023-2028, must be more ambitious, more comprehensive, and better focused on implementation than the previous NAPs. The Government should outline appropriate actions in the next National Adaptation Programme to address the adaptation gap identified for the risks and opportunities in the CCRA for relevant government departments. 
  • The Government should implement a public engagement programme about national adaptation objectives, acceptable levels of risk, and desired resilience standards. This should feed into the vision and desired outcomes of the next National Adaptation Programme.
  • A strong set of enforced standards should be implemented that ensure both new and existing buildings are designed for a changing climate and deliver high levels of energy efficiency and low carbon heat. The Government must improve understanding of and support action on overheating in existing residential buildings and encourage retrofit of passive cooling measures. The forthcoming Heat and Building Strategy must consider overheating risks
  • The Government should build a strong climate resilience capability for the UK and consider how more allowance and flexibility can be built into policy making and policy implementation. 
  • The commitment in the 25 Year Environment Plan to achieve 75% restoration for terrestrial and freshwater protected sites should be extended to include all priority habitat sites.
  • To help improve the information on SuDS and surface water flood risk, the Government should urgently begin collecting data on sewer capacity and SuDS location, type and capacity
    •    The forthcoming Net Zero Strategy should ensure that net zero and adaptation are considered together. There should be a focus on maximising interaction and minimising trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation actions and the risks from climate change to achieving net zero. The Government should implement actions that have multiple benefits across climate change mitigation, adaptation, biodiversity and health to achieve this aim. 

Sector Summary

  • The UK will face a range of climate impacts in a warmer future. The exact scale and nature of these impacts depends on the level of future warming, but some level of climate impacts are already observable and will be inevitable in the future
  • There needs to be a clear and robust plan for adaptation. The UK does not yet have a vision for successful adaptation to climate change, nor measurable targets to assess progress. 
  • The Climate Change Committee states that policies are being developed without sufficient recognition of the need to adapt to the changing climate. This undermines adaptation goals, locks in climate risks, and stores up costs for the future 
  • Of the 34 adaptation priorities areas assessed by the Climate Change Committee (CCC) only seven (~20%) have good policy documents in place to address potential climate impacts, only five (~15%) have shown notable progress in the past two years, and no sector is yet scoring highly in lowering its level of risk. Implementation of adaptation frameworks is still lacking, and there are no adaptation priority areas making good progress in managing climate risk

Climate Change Committee Adaptation Recommendations

number Sector focus Policy recommendation timing
1 Marine Extend the statutory requirements of marine plan policies to the decisions of public and private organisations. At present only public authorities are duty bound under law to apply the plan policies to their decisions meaning there is a significant gap in the protections they are designed to provide Now
2 Infrastructure Improve information sharing on climate risks to infrastructure interdependencies at a local level, especially for electricity, digital and ICT networks. As reported in our previous assessment in 2019, NAP actions to enhance arrangements for information sharing between local infrastructure operators and improve understanding of critical risks arising from interdependencies have not been completed. Defra’s link with Local Resilience Forums is key, and BEIS and DCMS should engage with utility companies to encourage standardised benchmarking and data sharing on climate risks to electricity networks, digital & ICT. Now and ongoing
3 Public Health and Vector-Borne Diseases  Fund the strengthening and widening of vector and pathogen surveillance and early warning mechanisms, due to the increasing risk of disease spread as a result of climate change and other factors. Now and ongoing
4 All Provide a clear commitment prior to COP26 regarding the timescale by which the UK’s official development assistance (ODA) contribution will return to 0.7% of GNI given the UK’s commitment to align its ODA spend with Paris Agreement requirements and the need for increased finance to achieve the Paris Agreement. 2021
5 All Implement a public engagement programme about national adaptation objectives, acceptable levels of risk, desired resilience standards, how to address inequalities, and responsibilities across society. The findings from the programme should feed into the vision and desired outcomes of the next National Adaptation Programme. 2021
6 All Fund a programme of work to design and populate the appropriate new priority adaptation indicators for England. These should complement other environmental and social indicators collated by Government. The CCC could be tasked to coordinate this activity in partnership with other relevant organisations such as the Office for Environmental Protection and Environment Agency. 2021
7 Natural Environment The commitment in the 25 Year Environment Plan to achieve 75% restoration for terrestrial and freshwater protected sites should be extended to include all priority habitat sites. 2021
8 Flooding To help improve the information on SuDS and surface water flood risk, urgently begin collecting data on sewer capacity and SuDS location, type and capacity. This would bring the level of information in line with that for river and coastal flood risk defences. 2021
9 All BEIS should ensure that Net Zero and adaptation are considered together in the forthcoming Net Zero Strategy. There should be a focus on maximising synergies and minimising trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation actions and the risks from climate change to achieving Net Zero. Actions that have multiple benefits across climate change mitigation, adaptation, biodiversity and health should be high on the Government’s agenda for action over the next five-year period. 2021
10 Building Safety and Overheating

Implement a strong set of standards - with robust enforcement - that ensure both new and existing buildings are designed for a changing climate and deliver high levels of energy efficiency and low carbon heat. Including: 

- Publish robust definitions of the Future Homes Standard and Future Buildings Standard which are legislated in advance of 2023 and ensure no fossil fuels are burnt in new buildings. This must include coordination with DfE, MoJ, DHSC as well as BEIS and HMT. 
- Regulate the overheating requirement as set out in the Future Buildings Standard consultation. Expand the requirement to cover refurbishments of existing buildings and conversions of non-domestic buildings to residential. 
- Work with BEIS on the Heat and Buildings Strategy and use standards to set a clear direction for retrofit across the buildings stock.
- Ensure that the remit of the new building safety regulator covers climate change mitigation and adaptation, strengthened through an explicit responsibility for sustainability; and is fully equipped to monitor and enforce compliance with buildings standards. 
- Work with HM Treasury to ensure that local authorities are properly funded to enforce buildings standards. 
Close loopholes allowing homes to be built which do not meet the current minimum standards for new dwellings.

This includes provisions around the expiry of planning permission and permitted development rights relating to change of use. Make accurate performance testing and reporting widespread, committing developers to the standards they advertise.

2021-2022
11 Natural Environment Make long-term targets for biodiversity, set out under the Environment Bill, and associated timeframes outcome-based and linked directly to the goals set out in the Government’s 25-YEP. June 2022
12 Natural Environment Make interim targets for biodiversity statutory and link them clearly to the long-term targets set out in the Environment Bill. June 2022
13 Natural Environment Set out a clear mechanism to account for the consequences of higher water temperatures and low flows (including drying up) in water bodies for freshwater habitats and species, and for meeting the Water Framework Directive (WFD) targets. This is lacking in current plans to revise the River Basin Management Plans (RBMPs). June 2022
14 Flooding Work with the Environment Agency to set out the measures being taken to improve the uptake of property-level flood resilience (PFR) following stakeholder responses to its PFR call for evidence and consultation. This should include improved data collection to monitor progress. Plans for the new national flood risk assessment and 2025 long-term investment scenarios must ensure that the evidence they provide can be used to identify the most effective locations for PFR, and smart targets for their installation with timescales. 2022
15 Food Security Set out measures to ensure the resilience of the food supply chain, including to the risks of extreme weather in England and internationally, as part of its white paper responding to the independent review of the National Food Strategy for England. 2022
16 Water Work with the Environment Agency, Ofwat and other stakeholders to set out targets and supporting measures for reducing water use by business. This could be through ensuring that any water reduction targets linked to the Environment Bill include business as well as household water use, as well as responding to advice and recommendations from Defra’s new Senior Water Demand Reduction Group. 2022
17 Flooding and Planning Reform Ensure that all types of current and future flood risk are included in policies to assess flood risk to new developments. Housing targets for local authorities should take account of flood risk, amongst other environmental issues. Assessments and management of flood risk in new developments must include as a minimum: 
- Evidence that the development will be safe over its full lifetime, with a consideration of the downstream interactions and impacts of new developments i.e. not increase flooding in any other areas
- An assessment of current and future flood risk under both a 2°C and 4°C global climate scenarios. 
- Assess and manage the risk of flooding to local infrastructure as well as housing. 
- A consideration of better preparedness as set out in the Government’s recent FCERM Policy Statement. 
- Ensure there are properly funded and trained staff in local authorities.
2022
18 Flooding To address the issue of increased risk of surface water flooding in new developments, commit to ensuring that new developments do not put more water into the public sewers than what was there before, taking account of climate change. To incentivise this, end the automatic right to connect to the public sewer; planning reforms should enact Schedule 3 of the Flood and Water Management Act (2010); and technical SuDS standards should be made mandatory and be updated to deliver SuDS that provide multiple economic, social and environmental benefits. 2022
19 Flooding The consultation process for surface water flood risk must be improved. This should be done by adding statutory consultees for all development type and sizes. Consultees must have the appropriate skills to provide advice on surface water flood mitigation. Ensure that Local Authorities fully justify planning decisions where applications can proceed either without or going against formal flood risk mitigation advice. 2022
20 Planning Reform Introduce an urban greenspace target to reverse the decline and ensure towns and cities are adapted to more frequent heatwaves in the future and that the 25-Year Environment Plan goals are met. 2022
21 Building Safety and Overheating Improve understanding of and support action on overheating in existing residential buildings and encourage retrofit of passive cooling measures. The Heat and Building Strategy must consider overheating risks. The following steps are needed: 
- Further research to understand when overheating occurs in existing homes, including: ongoing monitoring of temperatures in the housing stock, monitoring of overheating exceedances in homes, and number of homes currently adapted 
- Guidance and information for homeowners with the steps that can be taken if their homes overheat. This should include an outline of behaviour options and the measures that can be installed to reduce internal temperatures. Green Building Passports and home retrofit plans could provide holistic guidance and help to unlock green finance. 
- Overheating risk considered and mitigated against if necessary when doing energy efficiency retrofit programmes. 
- Making finance available to install adaptation measures. This could be via grant schemes or green finance for private owners, with public funding targeted at low-income or vulnerable households alongside energy efficiency retrofit.
2022
22 Research Make monitoring and data analysis of climate risks more accessible, alongside better digitisation of past records. Further efforts should be taken to make the evidence on climate risks more usable for decision makers through co-design of research programmes with end users, where the user drives the research question from the beginning of the process. A major gap is the lack of projections of impacts in 2ºC and 4ºC scenarios; this needs addressing as an urgent priority ahead of CCRA4. 2022
23 Building Safety Assess health sector vulnerability to existing and future climate risks, particularly, for care homes and homebased care. Following this, develop a cross-sector approach to address risks. This cross-sector approach should include input from CQC, PHE, NHS, MHCLG and local level public health bodies. 2022
24 Infrastructure Resilience standards for the digital sector must include requirements pertaining to climate change risks. In addressing the National Infrastructure Commission recommendations from the Resilience Study, Government should incorporate consideration of climate change risks and adaptation actions into any new standards being developed. Standards for digital infrastructure operators should include requirements to: 
- assess climate risks under both 2°C and 4°C global climate scenarios, 
- consider interdependencies with other critical infrastructure, and 
- set out actions to reduce risk and monitor progress
2022
25 All Ensure that adaptation is integrated into major upcoming policies in the next two years related to the priority CCRA3 risks for which it has lead responsibility, coordinating work with other relevant departments as necessary: 
- Risks to the viability and diversity of terrestrial and freshwater habitats and species from multiple hazards 
- Risks to soil health from increased flooding and drought 
- Risks to natural carbon stores and sequestration from multiple hazards
- Risks to crops, livestock, and commercial trees from multiple hazards 
By 2023
26 All MHCLG should ensure that adaptation is integrated into major upcoming policies in the next two years related to the priority CCRA3 risks for which it has lead responsibility, coordinating work with other relevant departments as necessary: 
- Risks to human health, wellbeing and productivity from increased exposure to heat in homes and buildings (with DHSC) 
By 2023
27 All Ensure that adaptation is integrated into major upcoming policies in the next two years related to the eight priority risks identified in the Committee’s advice on the third UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA3) for which BEIS has lead responsibility, coordinating work with other relevant departments as necessary: 
- Risks to the supply of food, goods and vital services due to climate-related collapse of supply chains and distribution networks (with Defra and DIT) 
- Risks to people and the economy from climate related failure of the power system 
By 2023
28 All Cabinet Office should ensure that adaptation is integrated into major upcoming policies in the next two years related to the priority CCRA3 risk for which it has lead responsibility, coordinating work with other relevant departments as necessary: 
- Multiple risks to the UK from climate change impacts overseas 
By 2023
29 All Cabinet Office should build a strong climate resilience capability for the UK, including making use of storyline or ‘what-if’ scenarios to assess risks, in addition to or instead of using ‘reasonable worst-case’ approaches. It should develop an early warning system for global climate shocks. It should consider how more allowance and flexibility can be built into policy making and policy implementation. This could include enhancing the ability of the Government to make fast decisions by bringing in technical advice and expertise quickly when needed, and both protecting, and enhancing, monitoring and surveillance systems to enable faster reactions as events unfold. By 2023
30 All For the coming five-year period 2023-2028, DCMS should outline appropriate actions in the next National Adaptation Programme to address the adaptation gap identified for the risks and opportunities in the CCRA for which it is the lead department 2023
31 Infrastructure 

Make changes ahead of the next round of reporting under the Adaptation Reporting Power (ARP). When used effectively, the ARP can present updated risks and adaptation actions that allows for an assessment of preparedness of all infrastructure sectors and their interdependencies. In particular: 

- The next round of reporting must be mandatory. 
•    The deadline for reporting must allow sufficient time for consideration of all the reports in the fourth UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, and the CCC’s statutory assessment of progress on adaptation. 
The list of organisations reporting should be expanded to ensure comprehensive coverage of critical infrastructure and services, such as canals and food supply chains, as recommended by the ARP3 consultation.

2023
32 Infrastructure  Work with Port Operators and the British Ports Association to ensure the format of reporting under the Adaptation Reporting Power is appropriate for port operators and that the right operators are being asked to report. Defra should work with these organisations to identify what further support could be offered to enable more comprehensive reporting on adaptation by the ports sector. 2023
33 All The next National Adaptation Programme, due in 2023, should ramp up adaptation ambition, implementation and evaluation. It should: 
- Set out the Government’s vision for a well adapted UK, alongside the measurable outcomes that the Government is aiming to achieve by the end of the next NAP period (2023 – 2028). 
- Include a detailed monitoring and evaluation framework, including which indicators will be used to monitor progress in reducing risk and showing the effectiveness of different adaptation responses for each risk in CCRA3. 
2023 onwards

Further detail: Progress in developing policy to adapt to climate change, and in managing risk through implementation

ADAPTATION PRIORITY AREA ADAPTATION EXPLAINER PROGRESS IN DEVELOPING POLICY PLAN SCORE PROGRESS IN MANAGING RISK RISK MANAGEMENT SCORE OVERALL PROGRESS SCORE
1 - Natural Environment - Terrestrial habitats and species This adaptation priority covers semi-natural habitats classed by Natural England as terrestrial - woodlands, grasslands, heath, montane habitats and bogs. The high-level findings of the Lawton Review (2010) suggests that habitats need to be in good condition, bigger, better and more joined up in order to have a greater chance of allowing the species they support to adapt naturally as the climate changes.  There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. The Government has published the England Tree and Peat action plans, while a range of other plans are in development (nature, soil heath, plant health biosecurity). These should both individually and collectively help improve resilience of terrestrial habitats. However, each must include careful consideration of future climate change. Environmental Improvement Plans (EIPs), mandated under the Environment Bill, must integrate climate risks into the delivery of all plan outcomes, and including actions that reduce vulnerability and exposure to climate change. There needs to be statutory targets linked to long-term targets in this area Medium There is limited progress in managing risk. Metrics to monitor the vulnerability of terrestrial habitats and species continue to show slow progress or a decline. The majority of targets set out in the Government’s Biodiversity 2020 strategy have not been met, with many falling well short Low 3
2 - Natural Environment - Farmland habitats and species  Farmland areas are exposed to significant other pressures from agricultural practices meaning they are likely to be highly vulnerable to climate change, affecting farmlands habitats and species There are limited policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. The Environmental Land Management scheme (ELMs) has the potential to form a comprehensive plan to improve the resilience of the farmed countryside to climate change. However, plans to date indicate adaptation is still not given sufficient consideration. It is not clear how climate risks will be incorporated in the delivery of private and public good outcomes, while explicit payments for actions that reduce vulnerability to climate change are still limited to flood risk. Low There is limited progress in managing risk.Agri-environment schemes have had only limited impact on managing pressures on biodiversity to date, evidence by long-term downward trends in abundance indicators for key farmland species. Habitat condition indicators show the proportion of protected farmland habitats in favourable/improving condition remains relatively high, but they only represent ~1% of total farmland areas. Low 1
3 - Natural Environment - Freshwater habitats and species This adaptation priority covers all semi-natural freshwater habitats and the species they contain as classified by Natural England; rivers, streams, standing open water and canals. At a UK level, freshwater habitats cover around 12% of land. Freshwater habitats provide a wide array of important ecosystem services, including water supply and pollution removal There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Current plans still do not give adequate consideration of risks to freshwater habitats from higher water temperatures and there is still no clear mechanism that accounts for the consequences of reductions in quality or flows due to climate change in meeting Government targets. Medium There is limited progress in managing risk. The score has changed to low from medium. There has been a recent decrease in the proportion of protected freshwater sites in ‘favourable’ or ‘unfavourable recovering’ condition, while broader measures of the health of all surface water bodies indicate persistent long-term declines in ecological status. There is also new evidence which shows water temperatures in freshwater environments have consistently exceeded their long-term mean in recent decades. Low 1
4 - Natural Environment - Coastal and marine habitats and species This adaptation priority covers all coastal and marine habitats and the species they contain around England. Increasing climate change in this area leads to risks to natural carbon stores and sequestration, leading to increased emissions. Blue carbon stored in coastal and marine habitats is also thought to be a critical carbon store, with the CCC stating that a baseline assessment of the total stock is urgently needed There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. The adoption of a further seven regional marine plans by summer 2021, taking the total to 11, will cover the whole of the marine environment in England. The plans use UKCP18 projections to evaluate the potential longer-term risks and opportunities from climate change. However, only public authorities are duty bound under law to apply the plan policies to their decisions, meaning there is significant gap in the protections they are designed to provide to marine habitats. The non-statutory status of Shoreline Management Plans limits their effectiveness as a long-term strategy. Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. Condition indicators for protected marine and coastal habitat areas in England suggest a stable to improving situation, however, for the former these cover only around 40% of the total marine area. New research suggests climate change is already affecting UK coasts and seas. Medium 5
5 - Natural Environment - Commercial forestry  The percentage of woodland under active management has increase from 52% in 2011 to 59% in 2020, although it has remained largely unchanged since 2015. Forestry sectors are essential for future domestic food security and for the UK’s land to contribute fully to delivering Net Zero emissions by 2050. Climate change poses a direct risk to commercial trees through increased exposure to heat stress, drought risk, waterlogging, flooding, and fire. There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Several medium quality adaptation plans are in place, although none directly consider climate impacts under different warming scenarios, supported by a set of actions. A guide to help forest managers and owners meet the adaptation requirements of the UK Forestry Standard will be published later in 2021. The Forest Industry still lacks a measurable goal for managing and reducing the impact of pest and diseases on trees in England. Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. There is mixed progress with the percentage of woodland under active forest management still below the target. The number of high priority forest pests in UK Plant Health Risk Register is up 72% since 2015. However, the diversity of trees planted across the forests in England continues to increase. Medium 5
6 - Natural Environment - Agricultural productivity  This priority area considers how climate change could affect the ability of the land to support domestic food production in the future as the climate changes. This area considers the degree of innovation and flexibility in agriculture, the resilience of crops and livestock to climate change impacts including pests and diseases, and the resilience of the underpinning natural assets as they are needed to support agriculture. If climate change degrades land capability overall, agricultural production will not be able to take advantage of any potential benefits from longer growing seasons. There are limited policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Defra still lacks a strategy to ensure the agricultural sector remains productive as the climate changes. ELM plans to date are still limited largely to flood risk management, and do not consider the broader range of climate impacts such as drought, pests and diseases on agricultural productivity. There is some evidence of sector-led activity, although plans to date are narrow in scope and do not account for the effects of climate change under a range of future warming scenarios. Low There is limited progress in managing risk. Although there have been declines in water abstraction by farmers, it is not clear if this represents any reduction in vulnerability to water scarcity. While there is evidence of actions taking place to build the resilience of the sector, there are few appropriate indicators e.g. soil health, agricultural R&D to support effective assessment. Low 1
7 - Natural Environment - Water management This adaptation priority considers the regulating services related to the availability and quality of water in the environment, and flood risk management provided by the natural environment. Good water management on agricultural and forested land will keep soil moisture in balance. There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Revisions to the river basin management plans consider potential climate impacts under a range of warming scenarios. However, there is insufficient consideration of risks to water quality from higher temperatures in the current plans. The Environment Agency’s second Flood and Coastal Erosion Risks strategy also considers adaptation for a range of climate scenarios and emphasises the potential for nature-based solutions to manage risks of flooding, including to agricultural land. Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. There is a lack of appropriate indicators to show how the vulnerability of the freshwater environment for providing water for human use is changing. Progress has been made in supporting sustainable abstraction of water from the environment through the Environment Agency’s Restoring Sustainable Abstraction Programme. The use of land for natural flood management remains poorly recorded. Medium 5
8 - Natural Environment - Commercial fisheries and aquaculture Commercial fishing is the activity of catching fish and other seafood for commercial profit with aquaculture being the farming of fish. There are risks to marine species, habitats and fisheries from changing climatic conditions, including ocean acidification and higher water temperatures. There are also risks to marine species and habitats from pests, pathogens and invasive species There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. The Fisheries Act 2020 includes a requirement for authorities in England to report on how objectives will be met to improve the ability of the Fisheries and Aquaculture industries to adapt to climate change. While adaptation plans for both sectors have now been published, neither plan considers climate impacts under a range of warming scenarios. Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. Overall, there are a greater proportion of marine stocks fished sustainably and within safe biological limits, both in the long and short term. However, existing metrics only include fish stocks covered by quota management. Medium 5
9 - People and the Built Environment - River and coastal flood alleviation This area focuses on river and coastal flood alleviation. Key indicators in this area include flood defence asset condition, investment in flood defences, and annual damages from river and coastal flooding. Changes in aspects of the UK’s weather and climate over the next three decades will create additional weather and climate risks. A consequence of this is higher sea levels which increase the risk of coastal erosion and coastal flooding from high tides and storm surges, alongside increasing sea temperatures and ocean acidification.  There are good policy frameworks to manage climate risks in this sector. The plan score has improved. Progress has been made in bringing together a policy statement and long-term strategy to support action on flood and coastal risk management. The Environment Agency’s FCERM Strategy puts in place measures that will allow for climate adaptation, seeking to better prepare for a 2°C rise in global temperature, as well as planning for higher scenarios, such as a 4°C rise in global temperature. Significant announcements have also been made to boost investment in flood defence schemes and supporting projects. High There is intermediate progress in managing risk. The risk management score remains the same. Good evidence exists of actions being taken through flood defence investment and the number of homes better protected. There is a lack of evidence to quantify the resulting reduction in vulnerability or exposure of homes and people, which is needed to show good progress in managing future climate change risk. The Environment Agency failed to meet its target for 98% of ‘high consequence’ flood and coastal risk management assets to be in good condition in 2019/20. Long-term budgets are needed to ensure existing defences are maintained. Medium 8
10 - People and the Built Environment - Development in areas at risk of river or coastal flooding  This priority focuses on developments in areas at risk of river or coastal flooding. Key indicators include planning permissions not in line with Environment Agency advice, and development in Flood Zone 3. Decisions around this area need to incorporate climate change risks and opportunities and avoid lock-in otherwise development in flood risk areas will not be resilient to current and future flood risk and flood risk management measures will become insufficient to manage the risk. There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. National Planning Policy in England aims to steer development away from current flood risk areas and advises that future risk should be considered. However, there is a lack of resources in local authorities, and no clear policy for how local authorities should effectively account for future flood risk in plans and development decisions with a 2°C or 4°C rise in global temperature. It is positive to see some actions set out in the recent FCERM Strategy and Policy Statement that aim to ensure future development is safe from flooding. However, unclear proposals in the Government’s White Paper planning consultation, planning for the future, may make adaptation more difficult to achieve if implemented. Medium There is limited progress in managing risk. The risk management score remains the same. The number of new homes granted planning permission against Environment Agency flood risk advice has increased; although in the vast majority of cases, the Agency’s advice is followed. Whilst limited building in Flood Zone 3 will not create a large present day increase in flood risk, it still increases exposure in the event of defence breaches and future climate and population changes. If building on the floodplain continues at the current level the funding required to maintain existing defences and build new ones will continue to rise. Low 3
11 - People and the Built Environment - Surface water flood alleviation Surface water flooding happens when rainwater does not drain away through the normal drainage systems or soak into the ground, but lies on or flows over the ground instead. There are risks to infrastructure services from river and surface water flooding. Nature-based solutions such as green sustainable drainage systems could offer an additional benefit for flood protection, particularly against surface water flooding, which is the major cause of current and future flood risk for substations. There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Progress has been made in bringing together a policy statement and long-term strategy to support action on flood and coastal risk management, including surface water flooding. The FCERM Strategy puts in place measures that will allow for climate adaptation, seeking to better prepare for a 2°C rise in global temperature, as well as planning for higher scenarios, such as a 4°C rise in global temperatures. The new FCERM Strategy has several commitments for the Environment Agency to work with Ofwat, water companies and other Risk Management Authorities to improve resilience to surface water and drainage flood risks and encourage long-term adaptative planning.  Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. A third of recently completed FCERM schemes are focussed on surface water flood risk management. Water companies are investing in reducing risk of sewer flooding to homes and money is being invested to improve forecasting and maps of risk. However, the number of properties at risk of surface water flooding is projected to increase, even with adaptation action. Better data on sewer capacity, number and type of SuDS being installed and collection of information of surface water incidents is needed. Medium 5
12 - People and the Built Environment - Development and surface water flood risk This priority areas focuses on development in areas of surface water flood risk. Planning applications for development in areas at risk of flooding need to be supported by independent evidence that flood risk from all sources, including surface water, has been assessed and mitigated and takes account of the implications of climate change. There are limited policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. There is no plan to address development and surface water flood risk which takes into account a 2°C rise in global temperature, with consideration of 4°C. The planning system has inherent issues for dealing with surface water and ensuring that multi-beneficial SuDS are installed. Planning Practice Guidance and non-statutory SuDS standards have not yet been updated. Low There is limited progress in managing risk. Surface water flooding remains a concern in new developments due to the rising level of risk in a changing climate. Homes are being built in areas at risk of surface water that may not have had any expert flood mitigation advice. The data that could show whether the planning system is reducing risk are not collected and there are no other indications that such a reduction is happening. The proportion of urban areas made up of impermeable surfacing, has increased since 2001, but remained stable since 2018. Low 1
13 - People and the Built Environment - Property-level flood resilience (PFR) Property flood resilience describes measures that reduce the risk of flood damage to properties as result of climate change and flooding There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. There has been progress in planning for how to increase the uptake of PFR. New measures in the FCERM strategy and a new Code of Practice, and proposed amendments to the Flood Re Scheme if implemented should all have a positive impact on the uptake and effectiveness of PFR. However, there remains a need for targets for large-scale implementation of PFR measures, with effective monitoring and evaluation built in Medium There is limited progress in managing risk. The current rate of PFR implementation remains low and could leave many homes vulnerable to flooding Low 3
14 - People and the Built Environment - Capacity of people and communities to recover from flooding This priority area covers measures that support individuals and communities to recover from flooding as a result of the changing climate. Key indicators include number of flood warnings by type; food warning registrations; mental health impacts from flooding; number of homes installing PFR per year There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Local resilience forums have developed response and recovery plans for flooding, and there is now evidence that most LRFs include climate change in local plans and risk registers. It is not known if local authorities have considered how they will manage the long-term recovery of people and communities who have been flooded. The FCERM Strategy sets a commitment for people to receive the information and support they need to prepare and respond to flooding and coastal change by 2030 Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. The Government can provide financial assistance for homes which are flooded, and at-risk homes built before 2009 remain insurable through the Flood Re scheme. However, the time it takes to recover from flooding and return home is based on several complex factors and there can be significant impacts to health and well-being due to flooding. Environment Agency figures show that the number of people signed up to the flood warning service in England has increased Medium 5
15 - People and the Built Environment - Coastal erosion risk management This priority areas concerns the risk management of coastal erosion. Key indicators include grants for demolition and removal due to coastal erosion. Higher sea levels as a result of climate change increases the risk of coastal erosion and coastal flooding from high tides and storm surges. There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Flood and Coastal Erosions Risk Management (FCERM) strategy indicates the Environment Agency is currently in the process of refreshing the evidence (including climate change projections) and technical guidance, which underpin Shoreline Management Plans (SMPs). The SMP Refresh is anticipated to initiate a new planned implementation cycle, however, it is not yet clear how this will change plan outcomes, including for both climate change responses and protecting habitats and species. Furthermore, the non-statutory status of SMPs limits their robustness as long-term plans as it is not clear if the measures outlined in them will be sufficiently funded. Medium There is limited progress in managing risk. The CCC states it is not possible at present to conduct a robust assessment of progress in managing vulnerability. Information to track the rate of delivering SMP policies against SMP ambitions is not available. Furthermore, despite the irreversibility of properties lost to coastal erosion there is still no national dataset of properties lost, meaning it is not possible to assess the change in exposure, or the viability of the coastal local plans that use the SMPs Low 3
16 - People and the Built Environment - Water demand in the built environment  This area assesses water demand in the built environment, in particular for personal usage. Water scarcity remains a key risk to the UK as the climate changes. Water efficiency measures also have the highest benefit-cost ratios of adaptation measures in the CCRA3 There are good policy frameworks to manage climate risks in this sector. The Environment Agency National Framework strengthens planning with a move to strategic regional planning on drought resilience, reducing long term water use and reducing leakage. The latest water company plans set new targets for personal water consumption and metering. The Government consulted on measures to reduce personal water use in 2019 and is expected to announce a statutory target on overall demand for public water supply encompassing targets for leakage, personal consumption and non-household consumption in 2021. An updated water resources planning guideline has been published and the next set of company plans are expected to use UKCP18 climate projections High There is intermediate progress in managing risk. There remains a need for an increase in demand-side measures and stricter targets for reducing household water use. There has been no significant change in average household per capita consumption over the last 5 years. The percentage of homes with water meters continues to increase, however. The latest projections of future water availability show that current demand-side adaptation measures may not be sufficient to ensure risk is kept at least constant. The outcome of the consultation on measures to reduce personal water use and faster progress in actions to reduce demand will be crucial in determining whether risks of water availability are being managed Medium 8
17 - People and the Built Environment - Health impacts from heat and cold This area covers health impacts from heat and cold, with a key indicator including the number of heat and cold-related deaths per year. The UK’s climate has already changed over recent decades. Over recent decades the UK’s annual average temperature has warmed at nearly 0.3ºC per decade. Heatwaves are now more common and intense across the country and cold extremes significantly less likely.  There are limited policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. MHCLG has proposed to introduce a new regulatory requirement for addressing overheating in new homes, alongside new statutory guidance. There remains no plan to understand overheating risk and adaptation needs in existing homes, nor action to retrofit existing buildings. There is also still no plan to address the lack of understanding of the extent of overheating risks in care facilities or how a move towards home-based care may alter the risks to patients and healthcare delivery from extreme weather. There has been some better planning for 2˚C and 4˚C scenarios in policies for schools and prisons. Low There is intermediate progress in managing risk. Cumulative excess all-cause mortality related to heatwaves in summer 2020 was higher than that observed in England during the 2003 pan-European heatwave and 2006 heatwave event. Research since 2019 has found further evidence of overheating occurring in homes. Better indicators would help to understand the extent of overheating in existing homes. While increasing heat is a major climate risk to health, cold related deaths will remain significant and mitigation action to improve the thermal comfort of homes in winter as well as summer remains urgently needed. There is increased evidence of overheating in hospitals and new research into the occurrence and cost of summertime overheating in care homes.  Medium 2
18 - People and the Built Environment - Risks to people from pathogens This priority area covers the risk to people from pathogens with key indicators including: the distribution of ticks in the UK; the distribution of the Asian Tiger Mosquito in Europe; the geographical spread of other climate-sensitive pests and pathogens. There is an increasing risk of disease being spread as a result of climate change and other factors. The CCC's Adaptation Committee recommend funding the strengthening and widening of vector and pathogen surveillance and early warning mechanisms to curb this.  There are limited policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. There is no coordinated plan in place which takes account of the impact of climate change on human pathogens. The new Health Security Agency provides an opportunity for climate change to be considered in the context of disease spread. Government are encouraging pro-environmental policies, such as maintaining or expanding urban green and blue space, to include a consideration of increased pathogen prevalence, but it is unclear what the take up of the guidance has been. Low  There is intermediate progress in managing risk. Warmer weather is contributing to increases in tick abundance and the potential exposure of people to tick-borne diseases. Resilience must be built proactively before new pathogens become established. While existing surveillance programmes, risk analysis and contingency planning are in place, the current level of surveillance of pathogens such as ticks and mosquitoes should be improved and expanded. This requires additional resources and investment from Government. Medium 2
19 - People and the Built Environment - Air quality This priority area concerns air quality, such as measuring the levels of pollution, with key indicators being the number of people with chronic respiratory conditions and instances of poor air quality in homes. There are climate risks to health and wellbeing from changes in air quality, both indoor and outdoors, as a result of air pollutants.  There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. The Clean Air Strategy includes long-term targets to reduce the levels of some outdoor air pollutants. However, there is no consideration of the impact of climate change itself on air quality. Cleaner Air is one of Public Health England’s (PHE’s) top ten strategic priorities, as set out in PHE’s Strategy 2020- 2025. The benefits of additional adaptation to target climate induced changes in outdoor air quality are likely to be low, but more research is needed on pollution and health monitoring and modelling during different weather events.  Medium There is limited progress in managing risk. Poor air quality causes significant harm to health. Vulnerability to outdoor air pollution, measures by the total number of people living with chronic respiratory conditions (COPD and asthma), has continued to increase. There is little evidence of monitoring of indoor air quality occurring in existing homes. Low 3
20 - People and the Built Environment - Effectiveness of the emergency planning system This priority area covers the effectiveness of the emergency planning system and looks at hazards and risks related to climate change and the response to these. This includes climate risks to health and social care delivery. The CCC's 2019 Adaptation Report found that there are plans in place for the major climate-related emergencies today, but these do not include a consideration of the present-day change in risk from climate change.  There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Climate change has now been recognised in the National Risk Register and is being included by some Local Resilience Forum in local resilience plans and risk registers. However, climate change is already altering the risk profile of some hazards and extreme events are possible in the current climate. It is unclear how this change in risk is being factored into current national risk assessments and legislation. Local Resilience Forum report being less prepared to respond to surface water flooding, drought and heatwaves, compared to river or coastal flooding Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. Resilience Direct provides a platform for live multi-agency responses, resilience planning, exercising and recovery and has over 83,000 users. There are warnings in place for most climate hazards. However, climate risk is increasing, while the capacity to respond to incidents appears to be decreasing. This may lead to the available response capacity of some local areas becoming overwhelmed by future unprecedented events or series of events in parallel or quick succession. Improvements in resilience should be geographically targeted, with service vulnerability hotspots identified Medium 5
21 - Infrastructure - Infrastructure Interdependencies The increasingly interdependent nature of the UK's critical infrastrcture means that the potential for cascading risks where this interdependency means failure in one area of infrastructure leads to failure elsewhere must be urgently addressed. The National Infrastructure Commission has highlighted climate impacts as one of the top challenges for resilient infrastructure in the UK, particularly the interconnected areas of digital, power, transport and water infrastructure. There are limited policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Although there are promising developments from the latest National Infrastructure Strategy (NIS) and the National Infrastructure Commission's Resilience Study, there is still no systematic assessment of interdependency risk or plan to improve resilience of infrastructure or address risks/opportunities from climate change Low There is limited progress in managing risk. Impacts caused by cascading failures from weather/climate disruptions are still not recorded or monitored at a national scale. There is also a lack of data to see whether actions taken by individual infrastructure operators is actually reducing risk. Defra is trying to include better coverage of interdependent risks via the Adaptation Reporting Power, but it is still not clear whether these are being identified/managed via this process Low 1
22 - Infrastructure - Design and location of new infrastructure Climate impacts should be factored in when deciding on the design and location of new infrastructure, so that this infrastructure is able to withstand possible future climate impacts and will not require costly modifications or need to be abandoned before the end of its useful lifetime There are good policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. National Infrastructure Strategy (2020) states that infrastructure will be made resilient to climate change, including considering climate change at the design stage and building in cost-effective actions across the lifetime of the asset. National Policy Statements require that when new infrastructre is built, future climate change is accounted for. The Green Book also recommends this for projects w/ long lifetimes. High There is limited progress in managing risk. Despite the high quality of Government plans to build resilience, risk management remains low. The 2nd National Adaptation Programme (covering 2018-22) has not had any specific actions on this topic, and there is no data to assess how well risk is being managed Low 6
23 - Infrastructure - Energy generation, transmission and distribution The electricity sector is a key component of modern society, and will be central in meeting net zero, given the importance of electrification. Therefore it is important that electricity sector assets are resilient to future climate risks including flooding of substations and extreme heat affecting the transmission network. There are good policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. National Policy Statements, new planning rules and the Environmental Permitting Regime all require that climate impacts are considered in the early stages of development/upgrade of assets. Transmission and distribution networks have approaches to manage current/future flood risk. The Energy Emergencies Executive (E3) monitors key risks to the sector and resilience measures High There is intermediate progress in managing risk. The sectors are publishing the necessary reports on the action they are taking to build resilience (ARP3 reports). There has only been one significant loss of generating capacity due to extreme weather since 2015. Power sector infrastructure is at greater risk from surface water flooding in the future. £172m of planned investment will reduce this vulnerability somewhat. Work is still needed to understand the implications of water availability projections for the energy sector in the context of a highly-electrified net zero economy. Medium 8
24 - Infrastructure - Public water supply Climate change could reduce water availability in the UK. Without adaptation, all water resource regions in England and parts of Wales are projected to be in deficit under a central population scenario with 4°C global warming by the late 21st century. Adaptation is therefore needed to reduce leakage levels, to ensure security of water supply in a future, warmer world There are good policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. The draft National Policy Statement for the water sector states that climate impacts will be considered in the early stages of developing new water infrastructure. Ofwat has set out a £51bn 5-y investment package in 2019, including requirements to cut leaks by 16% and mains bursts by 12%. The water industry has committed to a 50% reduction in leakage by 2050 High There is intermediate progress in managing risk. There have been reductions in leakage levels, but the long-term trend remains unclear, and further progress is needed. Although water supplies are interrupted less frequently now than before, consumers are still experiencing more interruption than they should. Ofwat has noted that resilience could still be further embedded across the whole of water company's business models. Medium 8
25 - Infrastructure - Ports Ports could be at risk particularly from coastal flooding, or impacted by coastal erosion. There is a need to consider the resilience of existing port infrastructure to these climate impacts. There are limited policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Resilience standards for ports are left to individual operators, and there is a lack of information on how much is being doing to prepare to climate impacts. Several ort operators declined to particpate in the second round of Adaptation Reporting Power (ARP2). It is unclear how many ports will participate in the upcoming ARP3 Low There is intermediate progress in managing risk. There is no new data available to assess the frequency of isruptions to port operations from extreme weather events, and how this might change in the future. If many ports submit ARP3 reports, this could provide more detail on risk management, but at present only one port (London) has submitted a report. The National Adaptation Programme currently has a limited focus on ports Medium 2
26 - Infrastructure - Airports Higher temperatures can cause problems with runway surfaces, and also with the behaviour of jet fuel due to overheating of stationary aircraft (CCRA3 Evidence Report, 2021). Some airports may also be at risk from extreme weather events such as surface water flooding. As with ports, resilience standards are left to individual operators, except for Gatwick and Heathrow. Airports with >5m passengers/year have to assess flood risk via their annual resilience plans. The draft Aviation Strategy proposes that the Government works with industry to improve the resilience of airports to weather, but des not mention climate change Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. There is limited data to assess the frequency of distruption to airport operation from extreme weather events, and how this could change in the future. Actions taken to improve flood resilience will lower risk. Defra expects all airports to submit an ARP3 report. Climate impacts on airports are expected to be lower than for other transport modes - but managing interdepencies with other infrastructure such as road/rail networks will be important Medium 5
27 - Infrastructure - Rail network The rail network faces significant climate risks in the form of flooding and extreme heat, which can warp and damage track infrastructure. There are good policy frameworks to manage climate risks in this sector. The rail sector is considering a range of warming levels when preparing for the future, including >4C scenarios. Network Rail has published an Adaptation Roadmap and an Environmental Sustainability Strategy out to 2050, with defined outcomes on adaptation out to 2034 High There is intermediate progress in managing risk. Limited data on vulnerability makes it harder to assess the current level of risk. Network Rail's climate risk assessment will provide better data in the future. There is an increasing risk of flooding for the rail sector, and increased heat risk which could cause damage to both track, signals and cables. Medium 8
28 - Infrastructure - Strategic road network The road network faces a range of risks in a changing climate, including greater frequency and severity of flooding (and associated damage such as erosion), risks to infrastructure from subsidence which could be exacerbated by changing climatic conditions, and temperature extremes (both heatwaves and cold snaps) that can cause disruption. There are good policy frameworks to manage climate risks in this sector. The Road Investment Strategy 2 envisions a road network that is resilient to floods, extreme weather and other climate risks. It includes performance indicators which can track progress in managing risk. In May 2020 the Government announced £1.7bn of funding for local roads/motorways. It is not clear what proportion of this will go to improving climate resilience. Highways England continues to embed climate resilience/adaptation into their standards High There is intermediate progress in managing risk. In 2019-20, Highways England met its performance targets for road condition. However, an increasing proportion of roads ae in poor condition, which will reduce their ability to withstand extreme weather Medium 8
29 - Infrastructure - Local road network The road network faces a range of risks in a changing climate, including greater frequency and severity of flooding (and associated damage such as erosion), risks to infrastructure from subsidence which could be exacerbated by changing climatic conditions, and temperature extremes (both heatwaves and cold snaps) that can cause disruption. There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. There have been no new strategies/plans since pre-2019. In May 2020 the Government announced £1.7bn of funding for local roads/motorways. It is not clear what proportion of this will go to improving climate resilience.  Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. Road conditions have remained ~constant over the past 3y, after a period of gradual improvement from 2011-2018. There is a lack of data to assess the vulnerability of local roads to climate risks, and monitor progress in managing risk Medium 5
30 - Infrastructure - Telecoms, digital and ICT infrastructure Digital infrastructure faces a range of possible risks, including coastal and surface water flooding, subsidence, high/low temperature extremes, high winds and lightning. There are limited policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. Resilience planning at the data centre sector is conducted at a corporate level, and resilience standards do not specifically address climate risks. The National Infrastructure Commission has recommended that Gov introduces a statutory requirement by 2022 for clear, proportionate and realistic standards for the resilience of digital services, including climate resilience Low There is intermediate progress in managing risk. There is a lack of data to assess the vulnerability of digital infrastructure to climate risks, and monitor progress in managing risk. However, all major providers ahve flood defences compliant with national requirements, and DCMS continues to engage with the sector on resilience and emergency response. ARP3 reports from the sector could provide further information to improve risk management Medium 2
31 - Business - Impact from extreme weather events Many businesses will be impacted by extreme weather events, such as flooding or heatwaves. There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. The Government has set out a roadmap for mandatory climate-related disclosures by firms, and there is wider work occurring in the business community on reporting of climate risks/adaptation needs. There remains a gap for SMEs - which the new SME Climate Hub could support, although this currently focuses on reducing emissions, rather than adaptation Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. Many large businesses, especially in the financial sector, are assessing climate risks more seriously now in line with TCFD requirements. There are still large gaps however, including scenario analysis and reporting of adaptation measures. Medium 5
32 - Business - supply chain Interruptions Climate impacts such as flooding can not only damage businesses directly, but cause disruptions in the supply chain which can lead to a cascade of further impacts across the econo,y There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. The Government has committed to better understand food supply chain issues, including possible climate impacts. Private sector initiatives that focus on climate-aware supply chain planning are growing. Greater action is still needed for key supply chains, and this should be integrated into new industrial and economic policies.  Medium There is limited progress in managing risk. Overall the risks of supply chain disruption have increased since the CCC's last adaptation progress report in 2019. Positive data suggests that businesses are increasingly prioritising climate-resilience within supply chain planning, but other data suggests there is limited engagement with suppliers on the issue of climate change Low 3
33 - Business - Water demand by industry Non-household demand accounts for ~20% of the UK's public water demand (CCRA3 Evidence Report, 2021). Climate change could reduce water availability in the UK, which could lead to a deficit between supply and demand for water. Businesses can help adapt to climate change by introducing efficiency measures to reduce their water consumption. There are intermediate policy frameworks to manage risk. The Environment Agency's National Framework identifies key sectors for water groups to engage with and develop strategies with for managing water use. The retail market continues to deliver only limited improvements in water efficiency, but this should hopefully chain with new action from the Environment Agency, Ofwat and the Retailer Wholesale Group. Clear targets on how much industry should contribute to managing water availability are lacking. Medium There is intermediate progress in managing risk. Non-household water consumption is roughly unchanged over the last decade. Recent survey data suggests some sectors/businesses are reducing their water use. Further data is needed on the relationship between water demand and production levels to assess the rate of water efficiency improvements Medium 5
34 - Business - Business opportunities from climate change adaptation There are some opportunities for UK business emerging from adaptation. For example, becoming more resilient to drought will require irrigation measures, providing a greater economic opportunity for the viticulture business (CCRA3 Evidence Report, 2021) There are limited policy frameworks to manage climate risk in this sector. The business opportunities from climate adaptation (demand for technologies, need for ecosystem restoration etc) are still not considered in key policy documents or strategies Low There is intermediate progress in managing risk. There is limited data to assess how well UK businesses are prepared for any direct opportunities from climate change adaptation (e.g. through adaptation-related technologies) Medium 2

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